- Upper GI And Metabolic Diseases
- Gallbladder, Bile Duct and Pancreas
The gallbladder is a small organ below the liver that stores a fluid called bile, necessary for fat digestion. The bile duct carries bile from the gallbladder to the small intestine. Choledocholithiasis is the presence of gallstones in the bile duct, causing obstruction. Gallstones can occur in the gallbladder and migrate to the bile duct, or they can form in the bile duct itself.
Probiotics are ‘good’ bacteria, naturally present in the digestive tract, which confer health benefits to the body. They help keep your digestive system healthy by reducing the levels of harmful disease-causing bacteria in your gut. Probiotics can also be obtained from certain foods and supplements. These replenish the naturally present bacteria lost after taking antibiotics and restore the balance in the digestive system.
Gastric disease refers to any disease that disrupts the normal functioning of the stomach. The stomach temporarily stores food, produces digestive enzymes, and protects the lower intestine from harmful microorganisms. Hence, the stomach is vulnerable to a large number of diseases.
The gastrointestinal tract (GI) extends from the mouth to the anus. It is divided into upper and lower GI tracts. The upper gastrointestinal tract encompasses the mouth, esophagus, stomach and duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. There are many diseases of the upper digestive tract; some of which include hiatal hernia, gastritis, ulcers, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), Barrett’s esophagus, and mouth, oesophageal, gastric and small intestinal cancers.
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver tissue. Exposure to alcohol, toxins or drugs over a long period of time may result in hepatitis. It may also occur due to an autoimmune response in which antibodies (proteins) produced by your immune system damage your liver tissue, but most often, it is caused by a viral infection.
Hepatobiliary disease is any disorder of the hepatobiliary system that impairs its normal function. The disease can range from minor infection or scarring to serious conditions such as cancer. The organs of the hepatobiliary system are the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts.
Achalasia, also known as oesophageal achalasia, is a condition in which the esophagus (a tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach) is unable to move the food into the stomach. A lower oesophageal sphincter is a ring of muscle fibers that surrounds the lower-most end of the esophagus where it joins the stomach.
Eosinophilia is a chronic disorder ensuing from the extreme production of eosinophils, either in the blood or in body tissues. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that resists infections and plays a role in the body's immune response. Generally, the blood doesn't have a large number of eosinophils.
Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases occur due to structural and functional abnormalities of the stomach and intestine. They can range from common digestive problems such as diarrhea, nausea and abdominal cramps to chronic disorders including Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, acid reflux, gallstones, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), colitis or cancer.
Constipation is a condition where stools or bowel movements become hard and difficult to expel from the body. This can result in fewer and strained bowel movements. It usually occurs when excessive water is absorbed from the stool while inside the colon. Constipation is a common condition that affects almost everyone at some time.
Diarrhea is loose, watery, frequent bowel movements resulting in the elimination of water and salts from the body and can result in dehydration. Diarrhea can be acute or chronic. Acute diarrhea lasts for a few days, whereas, chronic diarrhea lasts for many days and is usually associated with an intestinal disorder such as inflammatory bowel disease.
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. In ulcerative colitis, inflammation occurs in the innermost lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum and can cause the development of sores or ulcers. This can lead to the formation of pus, frequent bowel movements, and diarrhea.
Rectal bleeding refers to the passage of blood through the anus along with the stools. The rectum is the last part of the large intestine present just above the anus. Rectal bleeding is referred to as bright red to dark maroon colored blood passing along with stools through the anus. The amount of blood loss varies from mild traces to severe life-threatening bleeds. Bleeding can occur from any part of the gastrointestinal tract due to various causes.
Colon cancer is the growth of rapidly dividing cells in the large intestine. Cancer of the colon develops from polyps, the small and non-cancerous growths of tissues. Colon cancer usually begins in glands lining the colon and rectum. Colon cancer initially begins as a non-cancerous tumor and gradually develops into cancer which spreads to other tissues.
Colitis is a digestive condition characterized by the inflammation of the inner lining of the large intestine (colon) which can cause abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea. It may also be associated with inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis) or inflammation of the rectum (proctitis).
Cancer is the uncontrolled division of abnormal cells. Colorectal cancer (bowel cancer) occurs in the colon or the rectum, the major parts of the large intestine that function to store and expel waste products of digested food. Most colorectal cancer begins as a mass of abnormal cells called a polyp. Untreated polyps can spread into nearby tissues, lymph nodes or distant organs (later stages), disrupting their function.
Hemorrhoids may be external or internal. If they develop inside the rectum, they are called internal hemorrhoids. External hemorrhoids develop around the anus just below the skin. Some of the external hemorrhoids develop blood clots and are quite painful. They are called thrombosed hemorrhoids.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are two gastrointestinal disorders that are often confused for one other because of a few common symptoms. If you experience changes in your bowel movements, such as diarrhea or constipation, cramping, and recurrent abdominal discomfort or pain, you may be suffering from either inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome.
Colorectal diseases refer to several conditions of the colon and rectum that can directly impact its functionality, the severity of which can differ from mildly irritating to potentially life-threatening. The colon and rectum together form the bowel, which assists in the processing and discarding of the food consumed by us.
Upper GI And Metabolic Diseases
Hiatal hernia is a condition characterized by a protrusion of the upper part of the stomach through the diaphragm. The diaphragm is a muscular layer present between the abdominal cavity and the chest cavity and aids in breathing. It has an opening called the hiatus through which the esophagus or food pipe passes to reach the stomach. When the stomach protrudes upwards through the hiatal opening, it is called a hiatal hernia.
Belching is the act of expelling excess air from your stomach through the mouth. It is caused due to swallowing excess air while eating or drinking too fast, talking while eating, not chewing food properly, drinking carbonated beverages, chewing gum or sucking on hard candies, acid reflux (heartburn), stomach infection or stomach inflammation.
Coeliac disease is a condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the small intestine due to an autoimmune reaction (body’s immune system mistakenly attacks own healthy tissues) against gluten, a protein found in foods such as oats, wheat, rye, and barley. Intake of such foods may lead to gastrointestinal and malabsorptive problems.
Gastric cancer is cancer that develops from the cells of the inner layer of the stomach. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. The accumulation of these extra cells forms a mass of tissue called a tumor. Gastric cancer refers to the cancer of the stomach only and does not include the other organs in the abdomen. Cancer can occur in any part of the stomach.
A hiatal hernia is a condition in which part of the stomach pokes through the diaphragm and enters the chest cavity. The diaphragm is a muscular wall that normally separates the chest and abdominal cavities. The esophagus - the tube carrying food after it is swallowed - passes through an opening (hiatus) in the diaphragm to reach the stomach.
Swallowing disorder, also known as dysphagia, is a difficulty in swallowing food or liquids. Swallowing is a set of coordinated muscle movements that control the mouth, the back of the throat (pharynx), and the food tube (esophagus). Swallowing disorder may result from a lack of coordination of the nerves or muscles, or sometimes from infections and tumors.
Gallbladder, Bile Duct and Pancreas
The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ located on the right side of the abdomen, just below the liver. It stores bile fluid which is produced in the liver. Bile fluid contains water, proteins, fats, cholesterol, bile salts, and bile pigments, which aid in the digestion of food. The gall bladder releases bile fluid into the intestine through the common bile duct following the ingestion of food.
Gallbladder disease is an umbrella term for several conditions affecting the gallbladder. Inflammation of the gallbladder wall (cholecystitis) is responsible for a majority of the gallbladder diseases. Diseases of the gallbladder include gallstones, gallbladder polyps, gallbladder cancer, and sclerosing cholangitis.
The liver performs some of the important functions of the body including the production of bile juice, storing sugars, vitamins, and minerals, regulating blood clotting and purifying the blood from harmful substances including drugs or alcohol. Certain enzymes produced by the liver help in the breakdown of proteins into energy.
Hepatitis B is a viral infection affecting the liver that is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). There are two forms of hepatitis B infection: acute and chronic. Acute hepatitis B usually lasts up to 6 months and is mainly seen in adults. Chronic hepatitis B lasts longe-rand can develop in children below the age of 5 as well as in certain adults.
Liver masses or lesions are a group of abnormal cells in your liver. They appear as a solid mass or nodules that can be differentiated from the normal liver tissue. The liver is one of the largest organs of the human body and is situated in the upper right portion of your abdomen.
Cancer is the uncontrolled division of abnormal cells. Liver cancer may begin as a mass of abnormal cells called a tumor. Benign tumors remain localized and do not spread to neighboring tissues. Malignant tumors begin to spread to nearby tissues, lymph nodes or organs, disrupting their function.
Portal hypertension refers to the increase in the pressure within the portal vein, which carries blood from your digestive organs to your liver. It is commonly caused due to scarring of the liver, also called, liver cirrhosis. Other causes may include a blood clot (thrombus) which blocks the blood flow across the liver.